Tuesday, July 25, 2017

The Transatlantic Journeys of Ricardo Chialastri - Settling in America and Identifying Family in Italy from Ship Manifests

Immigration to the United States has occurred over many years in waves, from those seeking freedom from religious persecution, land, escaping wars or to make enough money to return home more comfortable than when they left.  Italian immigration to the United States reached a peak in the decade of 1900 - 1910 with over 2 million Italians coming to America.1 The number of Italian immigrants to the United States was thought to have topped 4 million with 30% - 50% returning back home after taking advantage of higher wages in America.
Ricardo Chialastri came to America on the SS RE D’Italia at the age of 19 in 1911.   
 RE D’Italia  
He boarded in Naples, Italy on 1 February 1911 arriving at Ellis Island, New York on 17 February 1911. The ship manifest2 indicates that Ricardo, 19, was from Cave, Italy and single.  His father Salvatore was the nearest relative “In country whence alien came” and Ricardo was headed to Atlantic City, New Jersey.
According to the manifest which spans two pages, Ricardo had never been to the United States prior to this visit.  He arrived with $40 and was described was described as 5’ 5” and unable to read or write English.  An entry on the manifest asks “Whether going to join a relative or friend: and if so, what relative or friend, and his name and complete address.”  Ricardo was going to see his cousin, Pietro Milani, on 25 Mississippi Avenue.  A scan of other immigrants led to the name, Umberto Lupi, who was noted to be visiting the same cousin, Pietro Milani.    
Prior research led to the marriage record of Ricardo Chialastri to Maria Sapochetti which was recorded in Cave, Italy on 4 Dec. 1912.3  Thus, sometime between Ricardo’s arrival in February of 1911 and his marriage in Cave, Italy in December of 1912, he departed the United States back to Italy.  
Riccardo and his wife of 2 months, Maria Sapochetti were located in an immigration record coming to the United States in February of 1913.  They departed on the  S.S. Berlin from Naples, Italy on 24 January 1913 arriving in New York on 5 February 1913.4  Ricardo and Maria are both 20 years of age, he is either a peasant (farmer) or farmhand, though the writing is unclear.  Maria is listed as a housewife.  Neither is able to read or write English.  Ricardo’s father Salvatore is listed as the nearest relative whence they came (Cave, Italy) and Ricardo and Maria are headed to Atlantic City, New Jersey.  
The second page of the manifest indicates Ricardo has paid for their passage on the Berlin.  He indicates previously being in the United States for 10/12 months.  Assuming his arrival in February 1911 was the previous time in the United State, Ricardo likely left the U.S. for Italy around November 1913, arriving back in Cave before marrying in early December.  
SS Berlin
Continuing the analysis of the 1913 immigration record, Ricardo and Maria were going to join their cousin, Alessandro Chialastri who lived on North Mississippi Avenue, possibly 12 North in Atlantic City, New Jersey.  A survey of the record reveals that the passenger listed above Ricardo and Maria was visiting the same cousin, Alessandro Chialastri.  The passenger was  Antonio Coluzzi, the record indicates that the closest relative whence he came (in Cave, Italy) is Rosa Chialastri, who according to family stories may be the sister to Ricardo.  
The  WWI registration card for Ricardo, dated 5 June 1917 indicates he was employed by Shore Fast Line Railroad as a track walker.5 
Ricardo and family were found in the US Census of 1920 living on South Mississippi Ave. in Atlantic City, NJ.6  Ricardo (listed as Antonio) was employed as  a laborer at the Railroad yard. In the 1922-23 Atlantic City  Directory, the family was living at 6 N. Mississippi Ave.7  Ricardo  (listed as Antonio) was employed as a laborer.
The family left for Italy in 1927, arriving in Italy 1 September 1927. Ricardo and his family lived in Cave for about 2 months, when according to an immigration record the family boarded the Conte Rosso on 23 November  1927 setting sail from Naples, Italy and arriving in New York on 2 December 1927.8  The ship manifest indicates they intend to settle permanently in the United States.  
Conte Rosso
Riccardo and Maria, both 35 years of age as of 1927 when they arrived in the United States.  Their children were listed as follows: Elisabetta, 14, Nannina, 12, Salvatore, 10,  and Amelia, 6 (spellings according to the ship manifest).  Riccardo was described as being 5'5" with a  natural complexion and chestnut hair and eyes.  Maria was 5'3" similar  descriptive features.  Elisabetta was 4’9" with natural complexion and chestnut hair, Nannina, Salvatore and Amelia did not have those entries filled out in the manifest.   
A final clue from the manifest indicates that the nearest relative in the country whence they came (Cave, Italy) was Eugenio Pasquazzi, listed as Ricardo’s brother.  Elizabeth (Chialastri) Sacco had indicated that Ricardo, her father, had a brother named Pasquazzi as well as several other siblings from the Pasquazzi line, including an Emilia and Estherina.    
Ricardo made three trips across the Atlantic Ocean prior to settling in the United States.  The manifests helped piece together the timeline for these trips.  In addition, the manifests offered additional clues to the family history by providing names of potential family from Cave, Italy including the Pasquazzi and Coluzzi name, and Rosa Chialastri.

1 “Italian - The Great Arrival - Immigration...- Classroom Presentation | Teacher Resources - Library of Congress.”
2, New York, Passenger Lists, 1820-1957 (Name: Operations, Inc.; Location: Provo, UT, USA; Date: 2010;), Database online. Year: 1911; Arrival: , ; Microfilm serial: T715; Microfilm roll: T715_1630; Line: 4; List number: .
3 Ricardo Chialastri and Maria Sapochetti, 4 December 1912; digital image, Antenati Gli Archivi per la Ricerca Anagrafica ( : downloaded 22 July 2017); Portale Antenati.
4 Year: 1913; Arrival: New York, New York; Microfilm Serial: T715, 1897-1957; Microfilm Roll: Roll 2011; Line: 5 and 6; Page Number: 159.E
5 Registration State: New Jersey; Registration County: Atlantic; Roll: 1711901; Draft Board: 2. U.S., World War I Draft Registration Cards, 1917-1918 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Operations Inc, 2005.
6 Year: 1920; Census Place: Atlantic City Ward 4, Atlantic, New Jersey; Roll: T625_1015; Page: 4B; Enumeration District: 31.
7 Atlantic City, New Jersey, City Directory, 1922. U.S. City Directories, 1822-1995 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Operations, Inc., 2011.
8 Passenger and Crew Lists of Vessels Arriving at New York, Dec. 1, 1927 (Name: National Archives, Washington, DC;), 680 of 1043; Roll 4178; Passenger and Crew Lists of Vessels Arriving at New York, New York, 1897-1957. Microfilm Publication T715, 8892 rolls. NAI: 300346.

Saturday, July 15, 2017

New Family Lines for Riccardo Chialastri and Maria Sapochetti - Stepping Back Generations Through The Portale Antenati (Ancestors Portal)

Italian records present an ideal chance to reach through the generations and build the family tree. The digitization of Italian State Archives records in Italy and published via the Italian National Archives on what is generally called the “Antenati” has been invaluable to those with Italian ancestors and lucky enough to have their State records published online.  According to the Anetenati website (, 49 state archives are available totaling over 57 million images.  These records are valuable when researching both the male and female lines, but particularly for the female.  The reason stems from the fact that the taking of the husband’s name upon marriage is not practiced uniformly across cultures.  I and Specifically, Italian women often kept their maiden names upon marrying making the records valuable since the female surname’s could be across birth, marriage and death certificates.

A critical component to researching ancestors who immigrated to the United States or any country is being able to identify where your ancestors came from in the old country.  The identification of the exact town will be very helpful to narrow a search when using the Antenati records.  The Chialastri-Sapochetti line was stalled at the parents of Riccardo Filippo Antonio Chialastri and Maria Flavia Sapochetti, who were married in Italy, immigrated to the United States and are the focus of this analysis.  

Riccardo and Maria were from Cave in the province of Lazio and the state of Roma. Cave is located about 40 km southeast from Rome. 

Cave is on the western side of Mt. Prenestini between its slope and the Valle del Sacco. 

Riccardo’s daughter, Elizabeth (Chialastri) Sacco passed down the information that Riccardo was born in 1892 in Cave to Salvatore Chialastri and Anna Maria Scacchetti.  Riccardo married Maria Sapochetti, daughter of Salvatore Sapochetti and Anna Maria Cleri in Cave.  Maria was also born in 1892 in Cave.  Ricardo and Maria Sapochetti had the following children all born in Atlantic City, New Jersey1,2: 

  •     Elizabeth Chialastri was born 19 November 1913. 
  •     Nannina Chialastri was born 7 May 1915. 
  •     Salvatore N. Chialastri was born 29 April 1917. 
  •     Emilia Chialastri was born 12 February 1921. 
  •     Richard Chialastri was born 26 November 1931. 

Elizabeth told how sometime between 1921 and 1931, the family left the United States for Cave, Italy.  According to these family stories, the children, Elizabeth, Annie (Nannina), Sam (Salvatore), and Mim (Emila) were upset with leaving the United States and threatened to leave as soon as they were old enough such that Riccardo and Maria finally settled in the U.S. prior to their last child, Richard’s birth.  The immigration will be covered in a separate analysis since the focus of this work is trace the ancestors in Cave.

The 1930 U.S. Census3 entry provided the first clue to search the Antenati for marriage records for Riccardo and Maria.  A census question asked the age at which they married, both indicated 20 years old. Since both were listed as 38 years old in 1930, the likely year of marriage for Riccardo and Maria in Cave was approximately 1912. 

Cave records for various years for birth, marriage and death certificates were available on the  Antenati website.  The “Pubblicazioni  di Martimonio"4, which is essentially the declaration of Riccardo and Maria to marry, typically a marriage bann.  The record is dated 24 October 1912 and contains a trove information related to Riccardo and Maria.  

Riccardo is 19 years old with occupation of “contadino”, farmer.  His father, Salvatore, is 62 years old, also a farmer and Riccardo’s mother is Anna Maria Scacchetti, no age provided.  They are all residents of Cave.  Approximate birth dates calculated from the ages suggests Riccardo’s was born about 1893 close to 1892 and presents a range to search, while his father, Salvatore was born about 1850, again providing a range to search for birth records if available.

Maria Sapochetti is 20 years old, providing a birth year of about 1892.  Her father, Salvatore is 65 years old, born around 1847, and he works as a farmer in Cave.  An important notation is also on the form relative to Maria’s mother, it reads, “della fu Cleri Anna Maria”.  This identifies her mother as Anna Maria Cleri, but the designation of “della fu” in Italian records indicates she is deceased.

The witnesses to the bank are Pietro Milani and Vincenzo Foschi.  The document is signed by Riccardo, Pietro and Vincenzo.

Searching the records resulted in the Atti di Matrimonio or Act of Marriage is the actual certificate for the marriage of Riccardo and Maria.  This was found as well in the Antenati records for Cave.  The marriage date was 4 December 19125, no new information was noted on the record. 

A family tree with some additional data was constructed based on these records. 

Initial information was that Anna Maria Cleri died after giving birth to Maria. Focusing on Maria Sapochetti (b. 1892), specifically her mother, Anna Maria Cleri, who died before the Publicazzioni in October of 1912 a potential range of search years spans 1892 to 1912. The Atti di Morte for Cave includes this range and the record for Anna Maria Cleri was found, she died according to the record 1 June 19016.  The record confirms this is the wife of Salvatore with the statement, “moglie di Sapochetti Salvatore”, with moglie meaning wife of.

The record indicates that Anna Maria was 48 years old when she died (quarantotto) indicating a birth year of approximately 1853.  The record also identifies Anna Maria’s parents as Giovanni Cleri and Giacinta Milani.  Giacinta Milani is deceased by the preposition “fu” prior to her name.  It is unclear what designation proceeds Giovanni.  The identification of the next generation provided enough information to search for a marriage record for Salvatore Sapochetti and Anna Maria Cleri.

The marriage record for Salvatore and Anna Maria was located in Cave records on the Antenati website and provides a marriage date of 30 December 18747.  The handwriting is difficult to discern but from the left side, it is certificate #11.  An important note is Salvatore is the son of Antonio, who is likely alive by the use of “di” while Anna Maria is the daughter of Giovanni, with the designation “fu” typically used if the parent is deceased.  This might help clarify what precedes Giovanni from Anna Maria’s Atti di Morte where the writing was unclear. 

The marriage record lists the parents for Salvatore Sapochetti and Anna Maria Cleri.   Salvatore’s parents are listed as Antonio, as previously noted, and his mother is Francesca Calajacomo. The designation preceding both parents is “di” indicative that they were living at the time of the marriage.  

Anna Maria’s parents are Giovanni, as previously mentioned, who appears to have died prior to the marriage.  Her mother is Giacinta Renzi.  This is different from what was listed in her Atti di Morte, where Giacinta Milani was identified as her mother.  It is not clear from the record whether the mother is living or not.  The records provided details to Maria Sapochetti’s parents and helped provide a generation back.  

The focus turned to Riccardo and his family.  The Atti di Morte for Anna Maria Scacchetti was located, certificate #1 dated 13 January 1918.8  Anna Maria is listed as “moglie di Chialastri Salvatore”, the wife of Salvatore Chialastri.  Anna Maria was 65 years of age when she died in Cave, putting her birth year at approximately 1857.  Anna Maria Scacchetti’s parents are identified and both appear to have the “fu” designation indicating by 1918 they are deceased.   Her father is Francesco Scacchetti and her mother is Annafelice Traversi, both of Cave. 

Salvatore Chialastri, Riccardo’s father, Atti di Morte was found and indicates he died 16 September 1919 at the age of 69.9  This suggests he was born about 1850.  He is predeceased by both parents as noted again by the “fu” prior to their names.  Salvatore Chialastri’s father is identified as Filippo and his mother is identified as Anna Moroni.  A cross-check with regards to his wife, Anna Maria Scacchetti is provided with the statement, “vedovo di Scacchetti Anna Maria”, where vedovo means widower, aligned with the previous record for Anna Maria Scacchetti.

A final discovery was the Atti di Morte for Anna Moroni “fu Domenico” dated 3 December 1891.10  This information can add another generation to the tree with the identification of Anna Moroni’s father.  The record indicates Anna is “vedova di Chialastri Filippo”, the widow of Filippo Chialastri.  Her father is Domenico, deceased and her mother, Giroloma Fari, is also deceased as noted by “della fu”.  Anna Moroni was 76 when she died, putting her birth at about 1815.

The records found in the Antenati provided enough information to create the most current family tree, and yielded important information to continue searching the records.  Through analysis of the records, an additional generation has been added to what was known for Maria Sapochetti and two generations in part were added for Riccardo Chialastri. 

Giroloma Fari (?-?) Domenico Moroni (?-?) Anna Moroni (1815–1891) Filippo Chialastri (?-?) Anna Felice Traversi (?-?) Francesco Scacchetti (?-?) Francesca Calajacomo (?-?) Giovanni Sapochetti (?-?) Giacinta Milani Renzi (?-?) Giovanni Cleri (?-?) Salvatore Chialastri (1850–1919) Anna Maria Scacchetti (1857–1918) Salvatore Sapochetti (1847-?) Anna Maria Cleri (1853–1901) Riccardo Filippo Antonio Chialastri (1892–1983) Maria Flavia Sapochetti (1892–1972)
1, 1930 United States Federal Census (Name: Operations Inc; Location: Provo, UT, USA; Date: 2002;), Database online. Year: 1930; Census Place: Atlantic City, Atlantic, New Jersey; Roll: 1309; Page: 16A; Enumeration District: 28; Image: 54.0; FHL microfilm: 2341044 
2, 1940 United States Federal Census (Name: Operations, Inc.; Location: Provo, UT, USA; Date: 2012;), Database online. Year: 1940; Census Place: Atlantic City, Atlantic, New Jersey; Roll: T627_2301; Page: 9B and Page 10A; Enumeration District: 1-67.
3, 1930 United States Federal Census (Name: Operations Inc; Location: Provo, UT, USA; Date: 2002;), Database online. Year: 1930; Census Place: Atlantic City, Atlantic, New Jersey; Roll: 1309; Page: 16A; Enumeration District: 28; Image: 54.0; FHL microfilm: 2341044 
4Riccardo Chialastri, Pubblicazioni Di Matrimonio, Parte-1, Year 1912: Numero 44, A Cave, Roma, Lazio, 
5 Riccardo Chialastri, Atti Di Matrimonio, Year 1912: Numero X, Archivio di Stato di Roma, Stato Civile Italiano Cave, Cave, Roma, Lazio,
6 Anna Maria Cleri, Atti Di Morte, Year 1901: Numero 36, Archivio di Stato di Roma, Stato Civile Italiano Cave, Cave, Roma, Lazio, 
7 Salvatore Sapochetti, Atti Di Matrimonio, Year 1874: Numero 11, Archivio di Stato di Roma, Stato Civile Italiano Cave, Cave, Roma, Lazio,
8Anna Maria Scacchetti, Atti Di Morte, Year 1918: Numero 1, Archivio di Stato di Roma, Stato Civile Italiano Cave, Cave, Roma, Lazio,
9Salvatore Chialastri, Atti Di Morte, Year 1919: Numero 35, Archivio di Stato di Roma, Stato Civile Italiano Cave, Cave, Roma, Lazio, Italy, 
10 Anna Moroni entry, Atti Di Morte, Year 1891: Numero 121, Archivio di Stato di Roma, Stato Civile Italiano, Cave, Roma.

Thursday, July 6, 2017

Johann Jacob Gossart and Maria Louise Saar: Evidence and Handwriting Lead to Immigration and Potential Parents

Johann Jacob Gossart has been a mystery in the family for many years. Commonly referenced as Jacob Gossart in U.S. Census, it is believed that Jacob immigrated from the area of Achtelsbach in Germany in the early 1850s or late 1840s. Family stories said that Jacob’s wife, Marie Louise Saar was a servant girl who worked for the Gossart family (multiple spellings include Gosart and Gossert). Louise and Jacob fell in love, and it was unsure whether his family sent him to America and she followed, or she was sent to America and Jacob followed.

The lore continued with stories that Jacob ran off twice, the first time Louise chased him on a stagecoach (suckling an infant the entire time) and found him somewhere in the midwest and brought him back. The second time Jacob left his family and rumors include that Jacob ended up in the Northwest running into issues with the law.  Elusive as he might be, determining Jacob’s lineage has proved just as difficult.

A search of immigration records for Jacob and Louise led to two potential findings that included an analysis of the ship manifests handwriting. When taking into consideration the family story that either Jacob or Louise preceded the other in immigrating to the U.S. a search was conducted for each individually.

The first finding was an interesting entry for a Louise Saar immigrating to the U.S. in 1852.1 The ship’s manifest for the John T. Lucy (or John & Lucy) dated 2 August 1852 as indexed listed Louise Saar, 79 years of age, clearly an unlikely candidate at first glance. However,

John Lucy Ship Manifest Listing Louise Saar, Age 79 or 19

analyzing the record, one may challenge the indexed handwriting when reviewing additional numbers from the same manifest. The potential is the indexed seven could be a one putting Louise’s age as 19 not 79 with a birth year of approximately 1833. As the comparison shows, the seven is usually distinctive with definitive up-down-up, u-like, appearance. The number one is less repetitive, sometimes being straight up and down and other times, having the more European look with “top” having an upward slant from left to right before connecting with straight up and down portion.
Handwriting Sample for the Number 7 (Top) and Number 1 (Bottom) from Ship John Lucy
Bottom Right Image is Entry from Louise Saar Line

The second entry involved additional analyzing the handwriting from the manifest for the ship John L. Bogert. Jacob Gossart, age 30 years old2 is listed, which if the Jacob of interest, would make him about ten years older than the U.S. census entries.
John L. Bogart Ship Manifest Listing Jacob Gossart, Age 20 or 30

However reviewing how the numbers were written for other passengers relative to how they were indexed, the age may be twenty rather than thirty which would suggest Jacob’s birth year to be approximately 1832, in line with the census information.

John L. Bogart Manifest Handwriting Sample for the Number 3 (Top) and Number 2 (Bottom)
Bottom Right Image is from Jacob Gossart Line

If the handwriting analysis is correct, these records represent the likely immigration records for Jacob Gossart and Louise Saar which were previously missed due to focusing on the indexed ages. The threes are straightforward with a slight top to bottom initiation at the top. The twos are more unique and varied, the top right image shows similar start to a three but a definitive loop and tail at the base. Comparing that to the bottom, one could interpret the bottom two right images as fancy twos or a three.

An attempt to provide additional circumstantial support for the analysis was undertaken using another passenger with similar potential for a 2 to be interpreted as a 3 (middle bottom photo above being either 26 or 36). A search was conducted for the passenger, Rosina Durr (or Dunn)2 since the family had unique names. An 1860 U.S. Census record for the Doerr (Duerr) family3 was found matching the family in the ship manifest, however the names were Americanized. It was interesting to note that the age of Rosina per the census was off by ten years, in that Rosina was 10 years younger in the census than the ship manifest similar to Jacob Gossart. For Rosina, the indexed record of the ship manifest was 36 rather than 26.

The first evidence of Jacob in the United States after immigrating is a listing in the 1855 Philadelphia City Directory for a Jacob Gossart living at Coates bel Nixon.4 According to the immigration records, Jacob and Louise arrived within a month of each in 1852, it is assumed they married between arrival and 1854 when their first child, Indeman, was born in November 18545 according to a baptismal record. Jacob and family were found in the 1860 US Census living in the 19th ward of Philadelphia, PA. Jacob is a laborer and his birthplace listed as Wirtenburg. He is living with his wife, Louisa and sons Inder (Indeman), Jacob, and Edward. All three children, according to the census, were born in Pennsylvania6, with Indeman and Jacob being baptized in 18577 and Edward being baptized in 1862.8

Jacob and Louise eventually settled in the Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania area where according to the US 1870 Census they lived in Plains Twp, Luzerne Cty, PA.9 He was employed as a stable boss. The real estate was valued at $150, about $2600 in today’s dollar.
1. Indeman Gosart was born on 17 Nov 1854 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He died on 31 Oct 1927 in Wilkes-Barre, Luzerne, Pennsylvania, USA. He married Rosa Jones in 1887 in Wilkes-Barre, Luzerne, Pennsylvania, USA.
2. Jacob Gosart was born on 07 Oct 1856 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He died on 22 Nov 1918 in Courtdale, Luzerne, Pennsylvania, USA. He married Amelia Geiser in 1874 in Luzerne, Pennsylvania, USA.
3. Edward Gosart was born on 06 Nov 1858 in Pennsylvania, USA. He died on 25 Dec 1937 in Jessup, Lackawanna, Pennsylvania, USA. He married Cecelia Jane Flynn in 1880.
4. Albert J Gosart was born on 06 Feb 1861 in Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania, USA. He died on 22 Nov 1908 in Livermore, Alameda, California, USA. He married Sarrie Gosart in 1887.
5. Charles Gosart was born in 1863 in Pennsylvania, USA. Date of death unknown. He married Lavina Lillie Martin on 22 Jan 1895 in Wilkes-Barre, Luzerne, Pennsylvania, USA.
6. Louisa M Gosart was born on 05 Jan 1867 in Pennsylvania, USA. She died on 23 Jul 1948 in Wilkes-Barre, Luzerne, Pennsylvania, USA. She married Edward J Smith on 30 Apr 1891 in Luzerne County, Pennsylvania.
7. Emma Gosart was born on 07 May 1875 in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania. She died on 26 Feb 1939 in Wilkes Barre, Luzerne County, Pennsylvania, USA. She married William George Worth in 1898 in Luzerne, PA.

In Portrait and Biographical Record of Arizona: Commemorating the Achievements of Citizens who Have Contributed to the Progress of Arizona and the Development of Its Resources, Jacob’s son A. J. Gosart had a biographical sketch which provided some information on his father Jacob:10
"His father, Jacob, led an interesting life, and when a young man came to America from his native land of Germany. He was a gold-beater by occupation, and in Philadelphia earned a fair competence by the exercise of his trade. The severe strain of constant confinement told on his none too robust organization, and he died in Wilkesbarre, PA., when a comparatively young man."

A review of the 1880 Census finds that Jacob is no longer listed with the family, however Louise lists herself as married denoted by the slash mark in the second column after listing her “Relationship” as wife.11 This suggests that Jacob has either passed away or as family stories suggest, he may have left the family sometime between 1870-1880.

1880 U.S. Census Line for Louisa (Saar) Gossart

The obituary for Louise from The Wilkes-Barre record 23 Mar 1898, page 8 of 12 provides some additional insight into Jacob’s death:12
Obituary for Louise (Saar) Gossart in Wilkes-Barre Record

The newspaper states that Jacob died twelve years prior to Louise, which was about 1886 at the age of 56, though no records have been found to confirm this event.  There was little information to help determine the parents of Jacob. Jacob’s birth date was estimated at about 1831 from the few records discovered such that a search of German Births and Baptisms led to two potential records:
Jacob Gossert13
Germany, Births and Baptisms, 1558-1898
birth: 28 Jun 1829 Eisen,​ Oldenburg,​ Germany
residence: 1829 Achtelsbach,​ Oldenburg,​ Germany
parents: Jacob Gossert,​ Louisa Alt
Johann Jacob Gossert14
Germany, Births and Baptisms, 1558-1898
birth: 24 Feb 1830 Achtelsbach,​ Oldenburg,​ Germany
residence: 1830 Achtelsbach,​ Oldenburg,​ Germany
parents: Jacob Gossert,​ Louisa Ruppenthal

The closest date being the 24 Feb 1830 entry that identifies the parents of Jacob Gossart as Jacob Gossert and Louisa Ruppenthal. The birth and residence location of Achtelsbach being the same for Louise. The first record was for Jacob Gossert born 28 June 1829 in Eisen, Oldenburg to Jacob Gossert and Louisa Alt. The second entry was for Johann Jacob Gossert born 24 February 1830 to Johann Jacob and Louisa Ruppenthal in Achtelsbach.

The first entry was ruled out as further research found a marriage record for that Jacob dated 11 June 1856 in which he married a Katharina Philippina Alt. The age of Johann Jacob is aligned to John Jacob found in the U.S.

A final piece of evidence that may lend support to family stories regarding the connection of the Gossart and Saar families was found in the birth record for Maria Lousia Saar. The record lists the Taufzeugen as Johannes Saar and Louisa Ruppenthal, possible the same Louisa Ruppenthal listed as Jacob’s mother. Johannes Saar may be the brother to Peter Saar, identified as Jean Charles.

Baptismal Record for Maria Louisa Saar Listing
Godparents: Johannes Saar and Louisa Ruppenthal

The importance of reviewing the actual records versus relying on an index cannot be overstated.  The importance of using family stories to guide research is critical to examining details in fresh ways. The immigration records for Jacob and Louise had not been located for years based on the indexed information, where time and improving research skills led to a re-analysis of previously rejected records. Analyzing the handwriting helped potentially identify the ship manifests for Jacob and Louise based on the story of them immigrating separately from one another. Additionally, ensuring a thorough review of the record for all names has led to further evidence of the identification of Jacob Gossart’s parents through the identification of the godparents of Louise Saar.

1 New York Passenger Lists, 1820-1891," database with images, FamilySearch ( : 15 April 2015), Louise Saar, 1852; citing NARA microfilm publication M237 (Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, n.d.); FHL microfilm
2 New York Passenger Lists, 1820-1891," database with images, FamilySearch ( : 15 April 2015), Jacob Gossart, 1852; citing NARA microfilm publication M237 (Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, n.d.); FHL microfilm.
3 Year: 1860; Census Place: Rochester Ward 6, Monroe, New York; Roll: M653_783; Page: 561; Family History Library Film: 803783
4 Vol. 1855 A. McElroy & Co, Orrin Rogers (Firm), and E.C. & J. Biddle (Firm), McElroy’s Philadelphia City Directory.
5, Pennsylvania, Church and Town Records, 1708-1985 (Name: Operations, Inc.; Location: Provo, UT, USA; Date:  2011;), Database online.
6, 1860 United States Federal Census (Name: Operations, Inc.; Location: Provo, UT, USA; Date:  2009;), Year: 1860; Census Place: Philadelphia Ward 19, Philadelphia,  Pennsylvania; Roll: M653_1169; Page: 227; Image: 231; Family History  Library Film: 805169
7, Pennsylvania, Church and Town Records, 1708-1985 (Name: Operations, Inc.; Location: Provo, UT, USA; Date:  2011;), Database online.
8, Pennsylvania, Church and Town Records, 1708-1985 (Name: Operations, Inc.; Location: Provo, UT, USA; Date:  2011;), Database online.
9, 1870 United States Federal Census (Name: Operations, Inc.; Location: Provo, UT, USA; Date:  2009;), Database online. Year: 1870; Census Place: Plains, Luzerne,  Pennsylvania; Roll: M593.
10 Portrait and Biographical Record of Arizona: Commemorating the Achievements of Citizens Who Have Contributed to the Progress of Arizona and the Development of Its Resources. Chapman Publishing Company, 1901.
11 Year: 1880; Census Place: Wilkes Barre, Luzerne, Pennsylvania; Roll: 1149; Family History Film: 1255149; Page: 558C; Enumeration District: 114; Image: 0440
12 The Wilkes-Barre Record, Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania, Wed, Mar 23, 1898 – Page 8
13 Deutschland Geburten und Taufen, 1558-1898," database, FamilySearch ( : 28 November 2014), Jacob Gossert, ; citing Eisen, Oldenburg, Germany; FHL microfilm 1,053,721
14 Deutschland Geburten und Taufen, 1558-1898," database, FamilySearch ( : 28 November 2014), Johann Jacob Gossert, 07 Mar 1830; citing ; FHL microfilm 493,233

Saturday, February 4, 2017

Tragedies and Hardships in Northeast Pennsylvania - The Families ofMargaret (Loughrey) Flynn Irving Townsley

The Note: The first 2 paragraphs are historical fiction based on the research and finding this family story.

The day day begins like all others, the satisfaction of providing for your growing family even at the risk you take every day entering the mine. Autocratic bosses, owners only concerned with profit, but the camaraderie of your fellow miners, your connection to your fellow Irishmen and knowing your creating a vibrant community for your children drive you to take the risk. You hop in the car of No. 2 slope of the Pennsylvania Coal Company's mine with 6 other men and 2 boys. It's about 6:30 a.m. when the coal car begins to descend 1100 feet down.

The sudden jerk is the briefest sign this day is not like yesterday, suddenly the car gains speed, Megan and Harrison jump out while the rest rush down the incline of the shaft. You know this isn't good as the curve looms ahead, when you see your fellow miners including the boys with the look that this day will not end well. The curve is hit and your thoughts are only for Margaret, your wife and your three little girls, Hannah, Cecelia and Adelia. Oh, how you wanted to see them grow.

"Mine car wedged at foot of slope from runaway cable." (

The stories and times of our ancestors lives as recorded in facts, newspapers and family lore can impact us in many ways, as my taking liberty to propose historical fiction above to Thomas Flynn's last moments. I cannot imagine what went through the minds of the 7 men and 2 boys killed in the accident on October 25, 1860.1 Thomas Flynn, married man and miner died in the accident. The news would likely move fast as families were notified and his wife Margaret would likely rush to the site for news. It is here that prior research left off and the above historical fiction was a reflection of thinking what my 3 great-grandfather and grandmother went through and how did Margaret fare afterwards.

Evidence indicted that Margaret Loughrey married Thomas Flynn and together they had three daughters, Hannah, Cecelia and Delia.2 The daughters married and their families thrived, but it is believed that Thomas Flynn died between 1860 - 1863 when an article appeared regarding the estate of Thomas Flynn.3 The article describes land bounding two neighbors, Patrick Moylan (various spellings) and William Loughrey (various spellings), both neighbors to Thomas and Margaret by the 1860 census. No will records have been located regarding the estate and no further information was found in newspapers.

Research led to the proposal that after being widowed, Margaret Loughrey, re-married to Thomas Irwin/Irving and appears in the 1870 U.S. census. It also appears that near the time of Thomas Flynn's death, they had an additional child born around 1861 named Dominic Flynn, who appears in the 1870 census with Margaret as well. Dominic was not found in subsequent searches of census or death certificates or any other records.

Once again, newspapers offer opportunities to learn about our ancestors and offer clues to to piece their stories together. In times of limited to no protection for child laborers or working class in general, Margaret appears to be struck by tragedy again in 1874. An article indicates a Dominick Flynn, at 15 years of age, had been driving driving the mules, and when trying to get off the car, fell and was run over, suffering a crushed skull that proved fatal.4

The article indicates that as of 1874, his mother presumably Margaret was a widow again, her second husband Thomas Irving/Irwin having died between 1870 and 1874. The potential connection from this article of Margaret to Dominic Flynn from the 1870 census is circumstantial and the interesting point is the reference that Dominic was "commonly known as Irwin". This might be referring to the surname from the 1870 census and that the Flynn children were referred to as Irwin/Irvings. If correct, Margaret married Thomas Irwin or Irving after Thomas Flynn's death and thus shows the connection to the family in the 1870 Census. The evidence is based largely on the fact that no other records could be found for Dominic Flynn and his age at the time of death is close to the census information.

Prior research led to the conclusion that Margaret married a third and final time to a man named Townsley (Townley). Records vary between whether it was a Samuel or Robert Townsley/Townley but the 1880 census provides the best evidence to link Margaret from the 1870 census to a Margaret Townsely in the 1880 census. Furthermore, an entry for a Michael Erwin, listed as step-son to Samuel Townsley appears possibly linking the Irwin/Erwin/Irving family from 1870.5 A city directory entry for a Margaret Townley appears in 1892 indicating Margaret Townley, widow of Samuel, bds at 132 Mill.6 No information has been located to the death of Samuel Townsley.

The primary research into the 1870 and 1880 census records for Irwin/Irving and Townsley was largely derived from the article for Margaret Loughrey's death, in which her pall bearers were all listed as her grandsons.7 All all but a Leonard Irving were accounted for as sons or son-in-laws to her daughters, Hannah and Adelia.

Research then turned to the Irwin/Irving/Erwin connection and any evidence that might connect the families. It led to more tragedy for this family.

A death certificate for a Leonard Irving indicated he died June 15, 1922 from cerebral hemorrhage and spinal compression from a fall from a crane.8 Leonard's parents were listed as a Michael Irving and Mary Edmonds/Edwards. The potential connection is to Michael Irwin/Irving from the 1880 and 1870 census.

Searching for Michael Irwin/Erwin/Irving led to a death certificate in which his parents were listed as Thomas Irving and Margaret Irving,9 potentially linking the 1870 census in which Thomas Irwin and his wife Margaret have a child Michael. The sadness continues in that Michael died 12 October 1911 in a mine cave-in.

Through multiple tragedies, Margaret survived until 1916 passing away at the age of 88. Of her children, Cecelia Jane died in 1921, Hannah died in 1924, only Delia lived to the ripe old age of 94 before passing away in 1948. A celebration of her 84th included her reminiscing of ". . .the hardships and difficulties encountered by early residents . . ."10 likely a reflection on the tragedy that followed her family but the strength of family and friends that allowed the family to persevere.

The research leads to the likely family tree for Margaret Loughrey.

1 Pittston Gazette, (Pittston, Pennsylvania), 01 Nov 1860, Thursday, Page 1
2 Barrett, William. "What Happened to the Parents of Cecelia J. Flynn? Using Parts of FAN Principle to Analyze Margaret Loughrey and Thomas Flynn." The Times of Their Lives. Last modified January 7, 2017. Accessed February 4, 2017.
3 The Luzerne Union, (Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania), 14 Oct 1863, Wednesday, Page 2
4 Daily Record of the Times, (Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania), 10 Apr 1874, Friday, Page 3
5 Year: 1880; Census Place: Plymouth, Luzerne, Pennsylvania; Roll: 1150; Family History Film: 1255150; Page: 365A; Enumeration District: 144; Image: 0738
6 Pittston, Pennsylvania, City Directory, 1892
7 The Wilkes-Barre Record, (Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania), 12 Oct 1916, Thursday, Page 4
8 Pennsylvania, Death Certificates, 1906-1964 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Operations, Inc., 2014. Certificate 60083
9 Pennsylvania, Death Certificates, 1906-1964 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Operations, Inc., 2014. Certificate 92433.
10 The Evening News (Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania) 28 Sep 1938, Wednesday, Page 18

© 2017 William C. Barrett

Saturday, January 7, 2017

What Happened to the Parents of Cecelia J. Flynn? Using Parts of FAN Principle to Analyze Margaret Loughrey and Thomas Flynn

The FAN principle was introduced by Elizabeth Shown Mills as a method to identify individuals through context of family, associates and neighbors. This can be especially helpful when records are scarce.  However the method can also be helpful when families or individuals "disappear" from records due to various reasons including re-marrying. The case below follows parts of the FAN principle to determine what happened to the parents of Cecelia Jane Flynn and identifies  extended family and potential extended family.

Cecelia Jane Flynn was married to Edward Gossart about 1880 in Luzerne County, Pennsylvania. Cecelia was born November 25, 1857 to Thomas and Margaret Flynn according to family stories. She died on April 9, 1921 at the age of 63 and was buried in Wilkes-Barre, Luzerne, Pennsylvania. Cecelia Jane's death certificate identified her parents as Thomas Flynn and Margaret Loughrey.

A death notice for Cecelia from the Wilkes-Barre Record identified two sisters, Mrs. Mathers and Mrs. Bierly. 1

The only likely Census entry for a Thomas and Margaret Flynn with three daughters was found in the 1860 U.S. Census where a Flynn family lived in Jenkins, Luzerne, Pennsylvania.  The entry identifies the family as Thomas and Margaret and three daughters, Anna M., Sarah J. and Adelia.2

It is thought that an entry for the Gosart family in the 1880 U.S. Census3 includes Cecelia though the relationships are not clear, as Cecelia married Edward and would not be listed as a Louis, and the use of second surname is odd since Louisa is too young to be married at 13, and it was known that Maria Louisa Gosart had a daughter Emma as well and the entry may be misinterpreted.

1880 U.S. Census Record

There was no other Census entry found for Thomas Flynn and family nor for just Margaret and the girls assuming she was a widow. Thus further research into the families of Mrs. Mathers, Mrs. Bierly and Cecelia Jane was conducted to potentially determine what happened to Thomas and Margaret.

A death certificate for a Hannah Mather dated August 29, 1924 was located in which her parents were identified as Thomas Flynn and Margaret Loughrey.4 This indicates that Anna/Hannah had parents with the same name as Cecelia. Furthermore, Anna/Hannah was born June 25, 1855 in Pennsylvania, the date corresponds to Anna from the 1860 Census.  She married in 1874 to John Mather,5 they had 10 children in 27 years.  The birth year agrees with the 1860 Census. A death notice for Hannah indicates she was a Flynn prior to her marriage,6 further linking her and Cecelia.

Newspapers continued to provide details assisting the research for researching the Flynn family.  The link of Cecelia Jane Flynn Gossart, Anna/Hannah Flynn Mather, Margaret Loughrey Flynn and Thomas Flynn led to an article for the 80th birthday of a Delia Bierly.7  Bierly was the surname for Cecelia's sister previously mentioned in her death notice.

The article states Delia was born September 29, 1858 in Port Griffith, Luzerne, Pennsylvania to Thomas Flynn and Margaret Loughrey. She married a Peter Schmitt first and then a William Bierly. Delia died July 6, 1948 in Wilkes-Barre, Luzerne, Pennsylvania.8  The parents for Hannah Mather, Cecelia Gossart and Delia Bierly are all the same, Thomas Flynn and Margaret Loughrey.

Thus, through a death notice of Cecelia Jane identifying her sister's married names, we can confirm the parents as Thomas Flynn and Margaret Loughrey, for Cecelia, Hannah and Delia. The question then becomes is this the right family of the 1860 census. Is Cecelia Jane the Sarah J identified in the census with the correct approximate age?  Delia is close to Adelia, the third sister from the 1860 Census with her age closely matching the article date from 1938. Anna is close to Hannah and the age is close to the birth information in the death certificate. What happened to the family from this potential entry in 1860 until the 1920s?

An article from the Wilkes-Barre Record in 19089 indicated:
"Mrs. Margaret Townley, an aged resident of Wilke-Barre, while at the home of her daughter, Mrs. Ed Gossert, in Greenwood a few days ago, fell and seriously injured her right hip."  

As difficult as it is to read the trials and tribulations of an ancestor, a clue is found in that Mrs. Ed Gossert, other wise known as Cecelia Jane Flynn, had her mother visiting and instead of Margaret Loughrey or Flynn, she is now listed as "Townley" suggesting she has remarried after having three Flynn daughters.

Further research led to a death notice of a Mrs. Robert Townsley in the home of her daughter Hannah (Flynn) Mather.  The notice in the Wilkes-Barre Record from Oct. 9, 1916 indicates she is survived by three daughters, Mrs. Hannah Mather, Mrs. William Bierley, and Mrs. Edward Gossert.10  The information indicates the same three sisters previously linked and now provides a name of Robert Townsley.  The name spellings seems to vary for Townley/Townsley; Loughrey/Loughney/Loughery; Gossert/Gossart/Gosart.

The death certificate for Margaret Townsley dated October 8, 1916 provides the names of her parents as Wm. Loughery and Mary Glenn.11  The informant is Hannah Mather.

An newspaper article from the Wilke-Barre Record dated Jan. 19, 189712 stated,  "Mrs. J. Townsley and granddaughter Miss Mary Gussart of Pittston, spent Sunday at the Dempsey residence."  The article is thought relevant as Miss Mary Gussart is likely the daughter of Cecelia, Mary Louise Gossart.  However, this creates an issue since Margaret Loughrey appeared to have married Thomas Flynn then a man named Townsley, where at least one article states Robert while another article states Mrs. J Townsley.

A search of the census records for Margaret Townsley/Townley in 1870 or 1880 finds a single entry in 1880 for Margaret Townley listed as wife of Samuel Townley in Plymouth, Luzerne, Pennsylvania.  A Michael Erwin/Irvin is listed as step-son to Samuel.13  There are two city directory entries for Margaret Townley, widow of Samuel, for 189214 and 189415. The funeral notice for Margaret Loughrey Flynn Townsley listed her pall bearers as grandsons: Patrick Maher, Leonard Irving, Thomas Mather, Patrick Schmitt, Charles Betterly, and Raymond Schmitt.16  Since the grandsons would be children of her daughters or associated with additional marriages - the obvious names from her daughters could include Mather, Gossart, Schmitt and Townsley.

Likely Name
Patrick Maher
Peter Mather
Son of Hannah Flynn Mather
Thomas Mather
Son of Hannah Flyunn Mather
Patrick Schmitt
Peter Schmitt
Son of Delia Flynn Schmitt Bierly
Raymond Schmitt
Son of Delia Flynn Schmitt Bierly
Charles Betterly
Son-in-law of Hannah Flynn Mather
Leonard Irving


Charles Betterly was determined to the husband of Mary Mather, daughter to Hannah Flynn Mather, who married Charles Bowman Betterly.  As for Leonard Irving, there is no obvious connection for why he would be a grandson to Margaret.  Questions arise relative to an error in the newspapers or is there a connection between the step-son of Samuel Townley from the 1880 census and is Michael Irvin/Erwin a son to Margaret, suggesting a possible marriage between Thomas Flynn and the Townsley person?

The use of wild card searching led to an 1870 U.S. census record in Plains, Luzerne, Pennsylvania for a Margaret Irwin and others17 as follows:

1870 U.S. Census for Margaret Irwin

Irwin, Thomas
-----, Margaret
Flinn, Anna M.
-----, Bedlia
-----, Dominick
Irwin, Bedelia
-----, Michael

The interesting entry presents several potential links, the first being Anna M. Flinn.  She is the appropriate age of Anna/Hannah Flynn based on the 1860 census and has the same middle initial. Bedelia Flynn may represent Delia Flynn being close in age to the 1860 census.  However, there is no Sarah/Cecelia, so is Bedelia actually Cecelia and Bedelia Irwin actually Delia Flynn, if so the birthdates are slightly off and of course the names being similar, could be an errant census recording.  If so, there is a new Flynn, Dominick, who is he and what happened to Dominick? Is the Irwin name, Michael Irwin related to Leonard Irving?

A Samuel Townley is found in Plymouth, Luzerne, Pennsylvania in the 1870 U.S. Census with two daughters, Mary Ann, 7, and Ellen, 3 in the home of John Dodson.18  There is no Margaret.  So how do the two entries relate to Margaret Loughrey if at all?

The current hypothesis is that Margaret Loughrey married Thomas Flynn, had three daughters, Hannah, Cecelia and Delia.  The theory is she was widowed and possibly married married a man with the last name of Irving/Irwin, was widowed again and married a man named Townsley.  Further research into the Irwin/Irving/Erwin name might help confirm this, but no research to date has added evidence to the theory.

Turning to the question of what happened to Thomas Flynn after 1860 and more specific, is the 1860 census entry the correct family, newspapers provided some clues.  A search of articles in newspapers from 1860-1870 and focused in the Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania region resulted in an article for a sheriff sale in the Luzerne Union dated Jan. 25, 1860.19  The article discusses a parcel of land as follows:
"A certain place or parcel of land situate in Jenkins township, Luzerne county, Pennsylvania, bounded and described as follows: on the south by the WilkesBarre and Providence plank road, on the west by lands of Wm. Loughey, on the north by lands of William Loughey and Patrick Maylen , and on the east by land of Patrick Maylen . . .Late the estate of the defendant in said writ named, with the appurtenances."
"Seized and taken in execution at the suit of Patrick Lenahan, to the use of Bernard Duffy vs. Thomas Flynn."

Several names in the description of the parcel were of interest starting with Thomas Flynn.  Two other names were William Loughey and Patrick Maylen.  Loughey is close  Loughery and Margaret Loughrey's father was William, could these neighbors connect the family?

The 1860 census for Thomas Flynn and family was expanded to show the neighbors, Henry Gibbons, Patrick Moylan, William Loughrey and Mary McGee.  As the spelling of Loughrey was varied in newspapers, it is likely that William Loughey is William Loughrey and Patrick Moylan is Patrick Maylen.  However, this William Loughrey is the same age as Margaret (Loughrey) Flynn and unlikely to be her father, more likely to be a brother or cousin, but a further connection to Loughery name.

A newspaper entry for Sheriff sale in the Luzerne Union dated Oct. 14, 1863 describes the same parcel of land near William Lochey and Patrick Moylon.20  The final sentence, "Seized and taken in execution of the suit of Francis Flynn vs. Michael Flynn, administrator of Thomas Flynn, deceased", provides evidence that this Thomas Flynn died between 1860 and 1863.

The current conclusion based on neighbors is that the Thomas Flynn identified in the 1860 census with neighbors of William Loughery and Patrick Moylon died between 1860-1863. His wife was Margaret and they had three daughters, Anna, Sarah and Adelia. Anna is likely Hannah, Sarah is likely Cecelia and Adelia is likely Delia. Hannah/Anna Flynn Mather, Cecelia Jane Flynn Gossart and Delia Flynn Schmitt Bierly were sisters. Thus, the current thought is that this is the Flynn family of interest.

The current proposal is that Margaret Loughrey married Thomas Flynn and upon being widowed possibly married Thomas Irwin (mutiple spellings), was widowed again and likely married Samuel Townsley. Margaret's father was a William Loughrey and mother was Mary Glenn.

William Loughrey in the 1860 census is possibly related to Margaret Loughrey and offers potential for more research.

Additional research into the Townsley and Irwin/Erwin/Irving name is an area for further research as is looking for Dominick Flynn/Flinn.

What do you think of the handwriting analysis?

1 The Wilkes-Barre Record, 11 Apr 1921, Mon, Page 3
2 Year: 1860; Census Place: Jenkins, Luzerne, Pennsylvania; Roll: M653_1134; Page: 316; Image: 323; Family History Library Film: 805134
3 Year: 1880; Census Place: Wilkes Barre, Luzerne, Pennsylvania; Roll: 1149; Family History Film: 1255149; Page: 558C; Enumeration District: 114; Image: 0440
4 Pennsylvania, Death Certificates, 1906-1964 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Operations, Inc., 2014.
5 1900; Census Place: Wilkes Barre Ward 16, Luzerne, Pennsylvania; Roll: 1436; Page: 5B; Enumeration District: 0186; FHL microfilm: 1241436
6 Pittston Gazette (Pittston, Pennsylvania)30 Aug 1924, Sat • Page
7 The Evening News (Wilkes-Barre, PA), 28 Sep 1938, Wed, Page 18
8 Pennsylvania, Death Certificates, 1906-1964 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Operations, Inc., 2014.
9 The Wilkes-Barre Record, Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania, Tue, Jan 28, 1908 – Page 5
10 The Wilkes-Barre Record, Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania, Mon, Oct 9, 1916 – Page
11 Pennsylvania, Death Certificates, 1906-1964 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Operations, Inc., 2014.
12 The Wilkes-Barre Record, Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania, Tue, Jan 19, 1897 – Page 5
13 Year: 1880; Census Place: Plymouth, Luzerne, Pennsylvania; Roll: 1150; Family History Film: 1255150; Page: 365A; Enumeration District: 144; Image: 073
14 Pittston, Pennsylvania, City Directory, 1892. U.S. City Directories, 1822-1995 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Operations, Inc., 2011
15 Pittston, Pennsylvania, City Directory, 1894. U.S. City Directories, 1822-1995 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Operations, Inc., 2011
16 The Wilkes-Barre Record, Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania, Thursday, October 12, 1916
17 1870; Census Place: Plains, Luzerne, Pennsylvania
18 1870; Census Place: Plymouth, Luzerne, Pennsylvania; Roll: M593_1367; Page: 490A; Image: 184777; Family History Library Film: 552866
19 The Luzerne Union, Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania, Wed, Jan 25, 1860 – Page 3
20 The Luzerne Union, Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania, Wed, Oct 14, 1863 – Page 2

© 2017 William C. Barrett